This web site is about film cameras and lenses of a bygone era.   Although the digital revolution has swept them aside, they have not left the stage completely thanks to a multitude of film camera enthusiast - of which I am also one.

I collected a number of such equipment when everyone was getting rid of them and switching to digital.   Here you will find descriptions of my cameras and lenses with a little bit of history thrown in here and there.   Perhaps more importantly, I took some of them apart because they needed fixing or cleaning and I have written up instructions should you wish to go down the same road.

Other than that I envisage this web site developing into an outlet of my photographic interests in general with the view that others might also find the material useful.

The title EXPOSED has a double meaning.   On the one hand it refers to the fact that film, and with it an era, has come to an end.   On the other hand EXPOSED means that I am looking inside - 'under the hood' - of these cameras and lenses and exploring and showing their inner workings.


George Pauka

[UPDATE Sept. 2022] Comments have been disabled as this site is no longer monitored.


  1. great site. not sure however that i have the required skills to clean the viewfinder of my mamiya universal

  2. Very useful site for anyone interested in camera repair and restoration! I service my own Nikkormat's and Leica's and your experiences certainly help me to avoid potential problems.....particularly the dreaded fungus!

    Thank you George!

  3. Yes, a well-written and nostalgic site for anyone who can see value and beauty in a camera beyond the latest program-mode-algorithm update.

    Well done, George.

    Alex (Soviet turret finder)

  4. Thanks for taking the time to put this website together, George. None of your repair articles relates directly to any of the gear I have but it's amazing how much useful info and tips I got from them nonetheless. On the subject of cleaning mirrors, here's something that worked well for me on a 1932 Rolleiflex Old Standard. I removed the reflex mirror and soaked it overnight in a small plastic tub which had distilled water and a tiny drop (about 1ml per 500ml) of wetting agent (the kind used when developing film in the darkroom but washing up liquid would probably do just as well) in it. The following morning I "tickled" the surface of the mirror with a soft artist's brush and was amazed at the crud that floated off. I sat the mirror up almost vertically to dry off and the wetting agent, which reduces the surface tension, meant there was no streaking. The mirror came out looking almost new. I can't guarantee this will work in every case but it was gentle enough not to damage the coating on an 85-year-old mirror.


  5. Hi and thanks for the very nice description of how to remove the top of the Mamiya Six.
    I have two Mamiya Six v 6x6 / 6x4.5 and this a little bit different. I cannot get the top of this camera it is still stuck after removing the four tiny screws on the outside and the screws on the inside ion the film uptake side.
    Any ideas?

    1. Very easy: You just unscrew the winder knob counter clockwise and it comes off together with a spring and the plate with the numbering.. The mechanism stays on the camera. I had the same confusion.

  6. Please allow me to state that yours is the best site I came long. Studying carefully your review of Minolta 9000 I can say that is highly objective!

  7. Thank you for your efforts putting this site together. Its very informative and a witty read. I'm a Minolta collector and have acquired many cameras in a relatively short space of time I suppose. All work and are used on a rotational basis.
    Together with a darkroom, the whole analog camera experience has proven to be my most enjoyable hobby, now that I'm in the mid term of life.
    Thanks again for your work.

    1. Thank you for your comment. I also think that photography and even camera restoration, being creative activities, can contribute to one's sense of well being and purpose. Certainly better past-times than binge watching silly television programs or wasting time with texting marathons on social media.

      By the way, my new hobby is electronic music and writing a program for a digital piano.

  8. Hi George,

    Great site George!

    Our thinking is seemingly identical - repair is creative, stimulating, educational, and yes gives us purpose.
    It's been a while since I part-repaired my film cameras OM1/OM2, Nikkor lenses etc, but the experience
    is very satisfying, especially if we succeed! ;o)


  9. G'day George - greetings from Australia!

    Found your site because I was looking for info on the Horizon S3 Pro, which recently arrived from Russia. Your review of it was very informative. After a bit of fumbling, I've loaded some Fuji ASA 400 Superia Xtra and am taking my first pictures with it. Back in the olden days, I had a friend who had access to colour film processing and a commercial printer. We produced some great pictures from a Widelux camera. Recently, I found some of them, which inspired me to get the Horizon. I can get colour film processed, but would dearly love to know the process for converting the negs to colour digital images, as you have done. Any advice would be much appreciated. If an answer here would be too lengthy, you can send it to: Thanking you, :) george.
    PS: My first SLR camera was the original Pentax Spotmatic, f1.4 50mm lens, purchased in 1967! :)


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